The theatre was established in 1801, and managed by Emmanuel Schikaneder. Many operettas were premiered in this theatre, among others by Johann Strauss (Fledermaus) and Benatzky .
In 1805 here was the premiere of Beethoven's opera Fidelio. Also premieres of his symphonies 1, 2, 3 and 5, his 3rd piano concerto and his violin concerto.
Wagner and Berlioz performed here. Millöcker, Lortzing and Nedbal were Kapellmeister.