Alonso de Mudarra was an important vihuelist and composer. Juan Bermudo, a noted theorist and composer in the 16th century, wrote in his book "Declaracion de Instrumentos de Musicales" that Mudarra was one of the best vihuelists in 1555.
Mudarra served as a priest at the Cathedral of Sevilla. Church Records indicate that he served as Judge of the Cibary, and later served as the Canon overseeing the Cathedral of Sevilla. Mudarra in a letter writes that he had the Duke of Infantados, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza and D. Inigo Lopes for patrons.
Mudarra published a collection of music for vihuela and four-course guitar called "Tres Libros de Musica", which is thought to have been the first publication for guitar. It contains Fantasias in three and four part writing, arrangements of works by Josquin des Préz, lighter pieces, pieces for guitar, music in all the modes, motets, romances, canciones, sonnets, verses, villancicos, psalms and an organ solo.